Warpreneurship: War as A Business
Making profits out of war is an ancient phenomenon. There are enterprises constantly supplying material to prepare armies and consequently profit from war. Enterprises have become aware that war itself and the post-war period is undoubtedly lucrative. However, the war also never works for any individual or group, except a dominant elite few: the wealth who propagate and influence patriotic and despotic war-peddling all over the world, making trillions of dollars in profit out of devastations and deaths, at the same time exciting their nationalism, and inspiring the citizen’s backing. The paper has examined Executive Outcomes (a commercial security firm) and the United States of America, Russia, Kenya and Uganda as countries that are examples of those engaging in Warpreneurship. But in the long run, the war in itself does not result in peace but immense profits and securing resources for the dominant elite few.
Adams, J. (1991). The Arms Trade: The Real Lesson of the Gulf War. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/past/docs/politics/defense/dpadams1.htm
Barber, N. (2013). Living through World War I. London: Raintree.
Baum, J. A. C., & McGahan, A. (2009). Outsourcing War: The Evolution of the Private Military Industry after the Cold War. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.1496498
Bitzinger, R., & Popescu, N. (2017). Defence industries in Russia and China: players and strategies. Retrieved from https://www.iss.europa.eu/sites/default/files/EUISSFiles/Report_38_Defence-industries-in-Russia-and-China.pdf
Burkman, T. (2016). Japan and the League of Nations: Empire and world order, 1914–1938. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Burns, P. (2016). Entrepreneurship and small business: start-up, growth and maturity (4th ed.). New York: Red Globe Press.
Charap, S., Treyger, E., & Geist, E. (2018). Understanding Russia’s Intervention in Syria. Retrieved from https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR3180.html
Clausewitz, H. (1989). On war. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Council on Foreign Relations. (2021). The US War in Afghanistan 1999–2019. Retrieved from https://www.cfr.org/timeline/us-war-afghanistan
Dupuy, T. (2002). Elusive Victory: The Arab-Israeli Wars, 1947–1974. Garden City: Military Book Club.
Fearon, J. D., & Laitin, D. D. (2003). Ethnicity, Insurgency, and Civil War. The American Political Science Review, 97(1), 75–90.
Garthoff, L. (1994). Détente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations from Nixon to Reagan. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.
Grunberger, R. (1964). Germany 1918-1945. New York: Harper & Row.
Gurr, T. R., Woodward, M. R., Marshall, M. G., & Political Instability Task Force. (2005). Forecasting instability: Are ethnic wars and Muslim countries different? Arlington: Political Instability Task Force.
Hersh, S. M. (1992). US Secretly Gave Aid to Iraq Early in Its War Against Iran. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/1992/01/26/world/us-secretly-gave-aid-to-iraq-early-in-its-war-against-iran.html
Hirsh, M. (2018, December 21). How Russian Money Helped Save Trump’s Business. Retrieved from https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/12/21/how-russian-money-helped-save-trumps-business/
Holtom, P. (2011, February). Ukrainian Arms Supplies to Sub-Saharan Africa. Retrieved from https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/files/misc/SIPRIBP1102.pdf
Holton, P., Bromley, M., Wezeman, P., & Wezeman, S. (2012, March). Trends in International Arms Transfers, 2011. Retrieved from https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/files/FS/SIPRIFS1203.pdf
Jackson, M., & Morelli, M. (2009, December). The Reasons for Wars – An Updated Survey. Retrieved from https://web.stanford.edu/~jacksonm/war-overview.pdf
Jervis, R. L. (2003). The Confrontation between Iraq and the US: Implications for the Theory and Practice of Deterrence. European Journal of International Relations, 9(2), 315–337. doi: 10.1177/1354066103009002006
Kaldor, M. (2013). New and Old Wars: Organised Violence in a Global Era (3d ed.). Oxford: Wiley.
Kenya National Commission on Human Rights. (2017). Report on securing national security & protection of human rights. Retrieved from http://knchr.org/Portals/0/CivilAndPoliticalReports/Securing%20National%20Security%20and%20Protection%20of%20Human%20Rights.pdf?ver=2017-06-29-161740-953
Lecamwasam, N. (2013, June 6). Iraq Invasion: A “Just war” or Just a War? Retrieved from https://www.e-ir.info/2013/06/06/iraq-invasion-a-just-war-or-just-a-war/
Malang, B. (2016). The Hidden Agenda Behind the Invasion of Iraq: The Unjust War Over Iraq in 2003. Central European Journal of Politics, 2, 1–14.
Mello, P. A. (2010). Review article: In search of new wars: The debate about a transformation of war. European Journal of International Relations, 16(2), 297–309. doi: 10.1177/1354066109350053
Morelli, M., & Rohner, D. (2010). Natural Resource Distribution and Multiple Forms of Civil War. Zurich: Institute for Empirical Research in Economics.
Mueller, J. (2004). The remnants of war. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Mutonyi, G. P. (2020). From Old Wars, To New Wars. Path of Science, 6(6), 9001–9011. doi: 10.22178/pos.59-10
Olingo, A. (2018, March 17). Uganda tops East Africa in military hardware expenditure. Retrieved from https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/tea/news/east-africa/uganda-tops-east-africa-in-military-hardware-expenditure-1386300
Palmer-Fernandez, G. (2003). The march to war: from missile defense to preemptive war. Retrieved from https://www.coursehero.com/file/46694469/Iraq-War-of-2003pdf/
Perlo-Freeman, S., Fleurant A., Wezeman, P., & Wezeman, S. (2016, April). Trends in world military expenditure, 2015. Retrieved from https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/EMBARGO%20FS1604%20Milex%202015.pdf
Seifert, T., & Werner, K. (2007). Het zwarte goud: Olie als bron van hebzucht, oorlog: olie als bron van hebzucht, oorlog, macht en geld. Rijswijk: Uitgeverij Elmar.
Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The Promise of Enterpreneurship as a Field of Research. The Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217. doi: 10.2307/259271
Singer, P. (2004, April 15). Warriors for hire in Iraq. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/articles/warriors-for-hire-in-iraq/
Singer, P. (2004, March 1). War, Profits, and the Vacuum of Law: Privatised Military Firms and International Law. Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, 42(2), 521–550.
Singer, P. (2008). Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry. Ithaca: Cornell University press.
SIPRI. (2019, December 9). Global arms industry rankings: Sales up 4.6 per cent worldwide and US companies dominate the Top 5. Retrieved from https://www.sipri.org/media/press-release/2019/global-arms-industry-rankings-sales-46-cent-worldwide-and-us-companies-dominate-top-5
Smith, A., & Stam, A. C. (2004). Bargaining and the Nature of War. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 48(6), 783–813.
Steinberg, J. (2013). Bismarck: A Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The Dalai Lamai. (1990). The Global Community and the Need for Universal Responsibility. Retrieved from https://www.lamayeshe.com/article/global-community-and-need-universal-responsibility
Thomas, C. (2020, June 25). Afghanistan: Background and US Policy: In Brief. Retrieved from https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R45122.pdf
Wennekers, S., & Thurik, R. (1999). Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth. Small Business Economics, 13, 27–56. doi: 10.1023/A:1008063200484
Wezeman, P., Fleurant, A., Kuimova, A., Tian, N., & Wezeman, S. (2018, March). Trends in International Arms Transfers, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.sipri.org/sites/default/files/2018-03/fssipri_at2017_0.pdfWorld Bank. (2011). World Development Report 2011: Conflict, Security and development. Retrieved from https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/4389
Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2021 Gerald Peter Mutonyi
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.