Metaphysical Foundations of Theistic Argumentation

Aleksandr Kulieshov


The proofs of God's existence is the subject matter of the article. Four main types of proofs are analyzed: cosmological, teleological, ontological and moral. It is argued that there is a general scheme of theistic reasoning present in all four types of proving. The principal feature of this scheme lies in recognizing a ground of everything existing which goes beyond the material (or natural) world. Possible naturalistic arguments excluding a non-material, super-natural foundation of the world are also analyzed. The objections to naturalistic arguments are formulated, making it possible to assert that the natural world cannot be explained from itself. Nor it can be explained from its physical (or natural) part. At the same time, the material world needs an explanation. To meet this need, the extended direct theistic arguments are formulated in the article. They begin with the fact of there being something and include two aspects of theistic argumentation: one is to establish the existence of immaterial foundation of the natural world; another is to demonstrate that this immaterial foundation may be identified with the world subject – omnipotent, omniscient, all-good, immaterial rational being which mainly corresponds to God of theistic religions. The conclusion is made that the thinkability and rationality of the idea of God is provable. One can argue that the idea of God more rationally explains the world. Moreover, it is evident that theism is rational, naturalism (as the principle of the general explanation of everything) is irrational. But the question remains how rational the world is.


God; theistic arguments; naturalistic arguments; grounding; the material world foundation; the function of choice; the world subject; metaphysics

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