Morphological Adjustment of Kahang River Consequent to Construction of Kahang Dam

Muhammad Nda, Mohd Shalahuddin Adnan, Mohd Azlan Bin Mohd Yusoff, Gideon Jiya Shabako, Yakubu Musa


In a tropical country like Malaysia, the availability of research works to monitor channel changes as a response to situating a dam over an observation period may help to establish new management strategies. These investigations will constitute a vital approach in assessing the changes to channel morphology downstream due to the presence of a dam and its operations. In the present study, the effects of Kahang Dam on Kahang River morphology, in particular, the downstream section was investigated and analyzed between January 2017 to January 2018. The rainfall pattern of the study period, the flow regime concerning the period, and geomorphological channel adjustments were carried out during the field surveys over a 400 meters reach. Different responses were leading to high flow and low flow regimes during periods with and without any interference due to dam operations. Similarly, the river channel was characterized by adjustments and realignments, causing modifications to the river morphology. Changes in cross-sectional area and local incision were also noticed as a direct response to sediment deficit and bank erosion process.


Kahang River; kahang Dam effects; Downstream morphological adjustment

Full Text:



Edwards, B. L., Keim, R. F., Johnson, E. L., Hupp, C. R., Marre, S., & King, S. L. (2016). Geomorphic adjustment to hydrologic modifications along a meandering river: Implications for surface flooding on a floodplain. Geomorphology, 269, 149–159. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2016.06.037

Han, J., Zhang, W., Fan, Y., & Yu, M. (2017). Interacting effects of multiple factors on the morphological evolution of the meandering reaches downstream the Three Gorges Dam. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 27(10), 1268–1278. doi: 10.1007/s11442-017-1434-0

Khan, O., Mwelwa-Mutekenya, E., Crosato, A., & Zhou, Y. (2014). Effects of dam operation on downstream river morphology: the case of the middle Zambezi River. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Water Management, 167(10), 585–600. doi: 10.1680/wama.13.00122

Childs, M. (2010). Literature survey: the impacts of dams on river channel geomorphology. Retrieved from

Ronco, P., Fasolato, G., Nones, M., & Di Silvio, G. (2010). Morphological effects of damming on lower Zambezi River. Geomorphology, 115(1-2), 43–55. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2009.09.029

Li, Y., Sun, Z., Liu, Y., & Deng, J. (2009). Channel Degradation Downstream from the Three Gorges Project and Its Impacts on Flood Level. Journal of Hydraulic Engineering, 135, 718-728.

Sanyal, J. (2017). Predicting possible effects of dams on downstream river bed changes of a Himalayan river with morphodynamic modelling. Quaternary International, 453, 48–62. doi: 10.1016/j.quaint.2017.03.063

Rădoane, M., Obreja, F., Cristea, I., & Mihailă, D. (2013). Changes in the channel-bed level of the eastern Carpathian rivers: Climatic vs. human control over the last 50years. Geomorphology, 193, 91–111. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.04.008

Surian, N., & Cisotto, A. (2007). Channel adjustments, bedload transport and sediment sources in a gravel-bed river, Brenta River, Italy. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 32(11), 1641–1656. doi: 10.1002/esp.1591

Lu, X. X., Oeurng, C., Le, T. P. Q., & Thuy, D. T. (2015). Sediment budget as affected by construction of a sequence of dams in the lower Red River, Viet Nam. Geomorphology, 248, 125–133. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2015.06.044

Lu, X. X., & Siew, R. Y. (2006). Water discharge and sediment flux changes over the past decades in the Lower Mekong River: possible impacts of the Chinese dams. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 10(2), 181–195. doi: 10.5194/hess-10-181-2006

Dai, S. B., & Lu, X. X. (2014). Sediment load change in the Yangtze River (Changjiang): A review. Geomorphology, 215, 60–73. doi: 10.1016/j.geomorph.2013.05.027

Dai, Z., & Liu, J. T. (2013). Impacts of large dams on downstream fluvial sedimentation: An example of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) on the Changjiang (Yangtze River). Journal of Hydrology, 480, 10–18. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2012.12.003

Kondolf, G. M., Rubin, Z. K., & Minear, J. T. (2014). Dams on the Mekong: Cumulative sediment starvation. Water Resources Research, 50(6), 5158–5169. doi: 10.1002/2013wr014651

Adnan, M. S., Nda, M., Mohammad Razi, M. A., Mohd Yusoff, M. A., Rahmat, S. N., Abustan, M. S., & Ahmad Tajudin, S. A. (2018). Bedload Sediment Concentration of Sungai Kahang Downstream Kahang Dam in Johor. International Journal of Integrated Engineering, 10(2). Retrieved from

Schoonover, J. E., Lockaby, B. G., & Shaw, J. N. (2007). Channel morphology and sediment origin in streams draining the Georgia Piedmont. Journal of Hydrology, 342(1-2), 110–123. doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.05.017

Nda, M., Jimoh, O. D., & Adnan, M. S. (2018). Estimation of Sediment Concentration of River Dagga, Chanchaga Basin, Niger State, Nigeria. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, 1467–1477. doi: 10.1007/978-981-10-8016-6_106

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Nda, Mohd Shalahuddin Adnan, Mohd Azlan Bin Mohd Yusoff, Gideon Jiya Shabako, Yakubu Musa

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.