Marginalization of Ethnic Communities and the Rise in Radicalization
Renewed marginalization, coupled with ethnic nationalism, could severely hamper peace, stability, governance, and the delivery of essential service to the people. Therefore, disharmony resulting from marginalization and regional discontent is no more dismissible issues. Muslim communities in Africa, South Asia, and some parts of the Middle East are considered to be highly underprivileged in terms of representation, economic prospects, and education. This exclusion has made young Muslims particularly vulnerable to recruitment by terrorist insurgents who appear to sympathize with their plight. The terrorists usually offer them possible alternatives to earn income and to express their grievances. Since the stability of any society largely depends on political, security, and economic freedom, communities that do not attain it, are likely to be vulnerable to recruitment by insurgent groups that meet their needs. This study examined how Somali Muslims' perceptions of marginalization influenced their radicalization in Kenya. A total of 400 respondents were sampled from a target population of 623,060. Sixty respondents were Muslim religious leaders in Garissa county, 40 respondents were law enforcement personnel working in Garissa County, 100 respondents were government officials in administrative offices within the County, and 200 respondents were local Somali youths aged between 17–35 years. Data was collected from the respondents through the administration of the questionnaires in hard copy form. The split-half method was employed to guarantee reliability of the survey, while validity was addressed by phrasing all survey and FGD questions appropriately in line with the research objectives. The collected data was then examined using quantitative and qualitative analysis methods. The quantitative analysis focused on numerical data, while qualitative analysis was used to analyze non-numerical information provided by respondents. In analyzing Somali Muslim views on marginalization and its effect on radicalization, this study employed correlation research design and Samuel Stouffer's relative deprivation theory of social behaviour. The findings of this study indicate that the perceptions of marginalization by Somali Muslims are related to an upsurge in radicalization.
Aakhunzzada, A. N., & Clara-Auguste, S. (2019). The Socioeconomic Dimension of Islamist Radicalization in Egypt and Tunisia. Retrieved from https://www.hsfk.de/fileadmin/HSFK/hsfk_publikationen/PRIF_WP_45.pdf
Abrahams, J. (2017). Ideological radicalization: a conceptual framework for understanding why youth in major u.s. metropolitan areas are more likely to become radicalized (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from https://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=800947
Jaye, T., & Alao, A. (2013). Islamic radicalisation and violence in Liberia. Conflict, Security & Development, 13(2), 191–208. doi: 10.1080/14678802.2013.796208
Angus, C. (2016, February). Radicalisation and violent extremism: Causes and responses. Retrieved from https://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/researchpapers/Documents/radicalisation-and-violent-extremism-causes-and-/Radicalisation%20eBrief.pdf
Bailey, D. M., & Jackson, J. M. (2003). Qualitative Data Analysis: Challenges and Dilemmas Related to Theory and Method. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57(1), 57–65. doi: 10.5014/ajot.57.1.57
Berman, E. (2009). Radical, religious, and violent: the new economics of terrorism. London: The MIT Press.
Briggs, R., & Feve, S. (2013). Review of programs to counter narratives of violent extremism. Retrieved from https://www.dmeforpeace.org/peacexchange/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Review-of-Programs-to-Counter-Narratives-of-Violent-Extremism.pdf
Collier, P. (2004). Greed and grievance in civil war. Oxford Economic Papers, 56(4), 563–595. doi: 10.1093/oep/gpf064
Dalacoura, K. (2006). Islamist terrorism and the Middle East democratic deficit: Political exclusion, repression and the causes of extremism. Democratization, 13(3), 508–525. doi: 10.1080/13510340600579516
Fishman, S. (2010, February 16). Community-Level Indicators of Radicalization: A Data and Methods Task Force. Retrieved from https://www.start.umd.edu/pubs/START_HFD_CommRadReport.pdf
Gelfand, M. J., LaFree, G., Fahey, S., & Feinberg, E. (2013). Culture and Extremism. Journal of Social Issues, 69(3), 495–517. doi: 10.1111/josi.12026
Gilgun, J. F. (2005). “Grab” and Good Science: Writing Up the Results of Qualitative Research. Qualitative Health Research, 15(2), 256–262. doi: 10.1177/1049732304268796
Ginger Hofman, N. (2004). Toward critical research ethics: transforming ethical conduct in qualitative health care research. Health Care for Women International, 25(7), 647–662. doi: 10.1080/07399330490458088
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. (2016). Economic survey 2016. Retrieved from https://www.undp.org/content/dam/kenya/docs/IEG/Economic%20Survey%202016.pdf
Khalil, J., & Zeuthen, M. (2014). A Case Study of Counter Violent Extremism (CVE) Programming: Lessons from OTI’s Kenya Transition Initiative. Stability: International Journal of Security & Development, 3(1). doi: 10.5334/sta.ee
Krueger, A. B., & Laitin, D. D. (n.d.). Kto Kogo?: A Cross-Country Study of the Origins and Targets of Terrorism. Terrorism, Economic Development, and Political Openness, 148–173. doi: 10.1017/cbo9780511754388.006
Krueger, A. B., & Malečková, J. (2003). Education, poverty and terrorism: Is there a causal connection? The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 17(4), 119–144.
Lazear, E. P. (1999, August). Economic imperialism. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=198333
Miriti, G. M., Mugambi, M. M., & Ochieng, R. J. (2014). The Critical role of curriculum in addressing youth unemployment in Kenya: Opportunities and challenges. International Journal of Education and research, 2(4), 493–508.
O’Duffy, B. (2008). Radical Atmosphere: Explaining Jihadist Radicalization in the UK. PS: Political Science & Politics, 41(01), 37–42. doi: 10.1017/s1049096508080050
Özerdem, A., & Podder, S. (2011). Disarming Youth Combatants: Mitigating Youth Radicalization and Violent Extremism. Journal of Strategic Security, 4(4), 63–80. doi: 10.5038/1944-04220.127.116.11
Rakodi, C., Gatabaki-Kamau, R., & Devas, N. (2000). Poverty and political conflict in Mombasa. Environment and Urbanization, 12(1), 153–170.
Saucier, G., Akers, L. G., Shen-Miller, S., Kneževié, G., & Stankov, L. (2009). Patterns of Thinking in Militant Extremism. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(3), 256–271. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6924.2009.01123.x
Silke, A. (2008). Holy Warriors. European Journal of Criminology, 5(1), 99–123. doi: 10.1177/1477370807084226
Turkmani, R. (2015). ISIL, JAN and the war economy in Syria. Retrieved from http://www.securityintransition.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/ISIL-JAN-and-the-war-economy-in-Syria1.pdf
Woodhams, K. M. (2016, December). Connections among communities: preventing radicalization and violent extremism through social network analysis in the Threat and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment (THIRA) framework (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from https://calhoun.nps.edu/bitstream/handle/10945/51640/16Dec_Woodhams_Katrina.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=yYamane, T. (1974). Statistics: An introductory analysis (3rd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.
Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2020 Abel Bennett Holla
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.