Instrumental Characterization of Unmodified and HDTMA-Br Modified Kaolinite Clay: SEM-EDX, Quantachrome and TGA-DTA
Abstract- Kaolinite clay from Alkaleri Northeast Nigeria was pretreated and beneficiated using physical process. The treated clay of cation exchange capacity (CEC) 9.5meq/100g was modified with cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) with amount equivalent to and doubled the CEC. The unmodified kaolinite clay (UKC) and the resultant organo-kaolinite clays: monolayer modified clay (MMC) and bilayer modified clay (BMC) were characterized using the following instruments: Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Quantachrome and Thermogravimetric-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA). EDX profile analysis shows 22.41% C, 56.17% O & 10.56% Al in UKC; 21.06% C, 55.49% O & 11.66% Al in MMC and 18.98% C, 54.59% O & 12.14% Al in BMC respectively; with Fe and K found in MMC. The SEM morphology shows UKC has high porosity and large particles, while MMC and BMC showed fine particles and darker than UKC with textural non-uniformity. TGA curve shows that UKC attains equilibrium decomposition at 997.20oC with 15.32% weight loss, MMC 997.30 oC with 32.67% weight loss and BMC 998.90 oC with 37.23% weight loss. The revealed weight loss indicates water of hydration and dehydroxylation. The DTA curves shows endothermic at 510oC, 250oC and 520oC for UKC, MMC and BMC respectively. The single point surface area were 11.9754 m2/g, 3.0132 m2/g and 3.8225 m2/g for UKC, MMC and BMC with corresponding adsorption average pore width 355.0050 Å, 478.6275 Å and 752.8364 Å respectively. Clay materials being promising minerals when modified can achieve desired surface properties for best performance in adsorption applications.
Aroke U.O, El-Nafaty U. A, and Osha O.A (2013). Properties and Characterization of Kaolin Clay from Alkaleri, North-Eastern Nigeria, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 3 (11) 387-392.  Aroke U.O., El-Nafaty U.A. and Osha O.A (2014); Removal of Oxyanion Contaminants from Wastewater by Sorption onto HDTMA-Br Surface Modified Organo-Kaolinite Clay, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 4(1)475-482.  Aroke U.O, Ibrahim M, Osha O.A. and Yunus M.H (2015); Parametric Studies of Sulphate Ion Sorption at different pH on HDTMA-Br Modified Kaolinite Clay, International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development, 3(5)250-259  Bontle M and Nadiye-Tabbiruka M.S (2007); Chemical and thermal characterization of clayey material found near Gaborone Dam, J. Applied Sci. Environ. Manage, 11(4)77-80  Brown, G., Newman, A.C.D., Rayner, J.H. and Weir, A.H. (1983). The structure and chemistry of soil clay minerals: In D.J. Greenland and M.H.B. Hayes (Eds.); The chemistry of soil constituents. New York, John Wiley and Sons  Coulson J.M, Richardson J.F, Harker J.H and Backhurst J. R (2002); Chemical Engineering Particle Technology and Separation Processes, 2 (5) 970 -987  Dalen M.B., Ibrahim A.Q., Adamu H.M and Nurudeen A.A (2014); Effects of CaCO3 and Kaolin Filler loading on Curving Rates of Polyurethane, International Research Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry 4(6) 691-709  El-Berrichi F.Z and Zen S. (2014); Removal of Anionic Dyes from Aqueous Solutions Using Local Activated Kaolins as Adsorbers, Proceeding of the 2014 International Conference on Power Systems, Energy and Environment, Guelma, Algeria, 191-195.  Emam A.E (2013). Clays as Catalysts in Petroleum Refining Industry, ARPN Journal of Science and Technology, 3 (4) 356-371.  Jorge C.M and Cynthia A.C (2003); Kaolinite Properties, structure and influence of metal retention on pH, Applied Clay Science, (23)133-139  Kazmierczak J., Nowicki P and Pietrzak R (2013), Sorption Properties of activated carbon obtained from corn-cobs by chemical and physical reactivation, Springerlink Journal adsorption, 19(1)273-281  Li Y. H, Xia B, Zhao Q. S, Liu F. Q, Zhang P and Du Q. J (2011); Removal of Copper Ions from Aqueous Solution by Calcium Alginate Immobilized Kaolin, Journal of Environmental Sciences, 23(3)404-411  Pachauri, T., Singla, V., Satsangi, A., Lakhani, A. and Kumari, K. (2013). SEM-EDX Characterization of Individual Coarse Particles in Agra, India. Aerosol and Air Quality Research, 13, 523-536.  Shakirullah M, Ahmad W, Ahmad I, Ishaq M and Khan M.I (2012); Desulphurization of Liquids Fuels by Selective Adsorptions through Mineral Clays as Adsorbents, Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 57(4)1375-1380  Singla P, Mehta R and Upadhyay S.N (2012); Clay Modification by the Use of Organic Cations; Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Scientific Research Journal 1(2)21-25  Sugumaran P, Susan P.V, Ravichandran P and Seshadri S, (2012); Production and Characterization of Activated Carbons from Banana Empty Fruit Bunch and Delonix regia Fruit Pod, Journal of Sustainable Energy and Environment, 3(1)125-132  Xi Y (2006); Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Organoclays, Queensland University of Technology, School of Physical and Chemical Sciences Inorganic Materials Research Group. Pgs 25-45
Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2020 Lucas Albert Jerome Hamidu, Umar Omeiza Aroke
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.