Analyzing Variables in Wheel of Participation a Synergy in Facilities Management for Enhancing Academic Performance

Habu Mallam Baba, Rozilah Kasim, Abubakar Mammadi, Abdul Azeez Adam Muhammad


This study analyzed variables in the wheel of participation advocated by Davidson (1998); in this study, wheel of participation is adopted as synergy in facilities management for the maintenance of university community infrastructure and facilities, to examine the effects of synergy by the local community and the university authority in facilities management for enhancing academic performance in Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi (ATBU). 100 questionnaires composed on 5 level-Linkert scales were randomly distributed, Reliability analysis was conducted to check the level of internal consistency among the measuring items, while Multiple Regression Analysis and Structural Equation Modelling with AMOS simultaneously analyzed the effects of the exogenous variables (information, consultation, participation & empowerment) on the endogenous variable (academic excellence) in ATBU. Estimates of the structural model revealed that information sharing, consultation with stakeholders, participation by local community members and empowering stakeholders do not influence academic excellence. While the regression analysis indicated a weak relationship between all the four predictor variables and the academic excellence; and with R2 of 0.029 meant that the predictor variables accounted for only 2.9 % of the variance on academic excellence, thus, 97.1 % is accounted for by other variables not covered in this study. Further studies are recommended to supplement more predictor variables like students´ talent, intuition, flair, willingness to learn (zeal), finance and so on; using the inductive approach.


Wheel of Participation; Facilities Management; Academic Performance

Full Text:



Akinyode, B. F. (2016). The Use of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) in Built Environment Disciplines. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 6(6), 109–120.

Alavifar, A., Karimimalayer, M., & Anuar, M. (2012). Structural Equation Modeling Vs Multiple Regression. Engineering Science and Technology, 2(2), 326–329.

Alexander, K. (2016). Facilities Management: Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.

Asiabaka, I. P. (2008). The Need for Effective facility Management in Schools in Nigeria. New New York Science Journal, 4(8), 10–21.

Awang, Z. (2014). A handbook on Structural Equation Modeling. Selangor, MPWS Rich Resources.

Booty, F. (2009). Facilities Management Handbook (4th ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Byrne, B. M. (2010). Structural Equation Modeling with Amos: Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Carter, C. (2006). Environmental Governance: The Power and Pitfalls of Participatory Processes. Retrieved from

Davidson, S. (1998). Spinning the Wheel of Empowerment. Planning, 3, 14–15.

Douglas Omoregie, A., Oluwaseyi Alabi, A., Ayodeji Emmanuel, O., … Emmanuel Imuetinyan, A. (2018). Stakeholders’ Perception of Sustainability in Educational Buildings in Nigeria. International Journal of Sustainable Construction Engineering Technology, 9(1). doi: 10.30880/ijscet.2018.09.01.001

Facility Management Association of Australia. (2012). Facilities Management Good Practice Guide. Retrieved from

Gençtürk, E., Gökçek, T., & Güneş, G. (2010). Reliability and validity study of the technology proficiency self-assessment scale. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 2863–2867. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.429

Gliem, J. A., & Gliem, R. R. (2003). Calculating, interpreting, and reporting Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient for Likert-type Scales. Retrieved from

Kasim, R. (2011). Community- based Facilities management: Theory and Practice. Batu Pahat: Penerbit UTHM.

Lunenburg, F. C. (2010). School Facilities Management. National Forum of Educational Administration & Supervision Journal, 27(4), 1–7.

Luyet, V., Schlaepfer, R., Parlange, M. B., & Buttler, A. (2012). A framework to implement Stakeholder participation in environmental projects. Journal of Environmental Management, 111, 213–219. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.06.026

Schroeder, P.M. (2013, October). Specific Operational Mechanisms and Practices for Public Participation in Environmental Planning and Assessments. Retrieved from

Tavakol, M. & Dennick, R. (2011). Making Sense of Cronbach’s Alpha. International Journal of Medical Education, 2, 53–55. doi: 10.5116/ijme.4dfb.8dfd

Then, D. S., Jones, K. & Hinks, J. (Eds.). (2004). Facilities Management and Maintenance. Human Elements in Facilities Management. Proceedings of the CIBW70 2004 Hong Kong International Symposium. Retrieved from

Wai, S. H., Yusof, A. M., Ismail, S., & Tey, K. H. (2012). Critical Success Factors for Sustainable Building in Malaysia. Retrieved from

Wan Afthanorhan, W. (2014). Modeling the Multiple Indirect Effects among Latent Constructs by using Structural Equation Modeling: Volunteerism Program. International Journal of Advances in Applied Sciences, 3(1), 25–32.

Wilcox, D. (1994). The Guide to Effective Participation Book. Retrieved from

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Habu Mallam Baba, Rozilah Kasim, Abubakar Mammadi, Abdul Azeez Adam Muhammad

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.