Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy Characterization of Adhesive Produced From Polystyrene Waste

Lucas Albert Jerome Hamidu, Umar Omeiza Aroke, Odeh Adey Osha, Idris Misau Muhammad


In this study, the optimized adhesive formulated from polystyrene waste was characterized for Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) / Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, solubility, density and water absorption for identification of existing functional group(s), morphology, elemental compositions, etc. The results revealed that polystyrene, unsaturated hydrocarbon has been degraded to form a new product containing aromatic compounds. SEM morphology showed well mixed blended adhesive with silver-like appearance due to additives and EDX revealed 12 existing elemental compositions with their corresponding percentage atomic weights as follows; carbon 93.14 %, hafnium 1.44 %, vanadium 1.66 %, chromium 1.40 %, bromine 0.47 %, palladium 0.26 %, copper 0.43 %, nickel 0.31 %, cobalt 0.29 %, potassium 0.38 %, iron 0.15 % and manganese 0.08 %. The produced polystyrene adhesive was sparsely soluble in water after 30 minutes; it has a density of 1041 kg/m3 and does not absorb moisture. Because of these results, the adhesive from polystyrene waste could serve as green adhesive, since there are no threats of toxic substance emission from the spectral analysis since most of the elements are used as a supplement in pharmaceuticals and catalyst in process industries.


Adhesive; Characterization; scanning electron microscopy / energy dispersive X-ray; Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy; Polystyrene Waste

Full Text:



Adjova, E., Olodo, E., & Doko, V. (2018). Study of the implementation of waste wood, plastics and polystyrene from industries for various applications in the building industry. Retrieved from

Akinterinwa, A., Osemeahon, S. A., Nkafamiya, I. I., Dass, P. M. (2015). Formulation of Emulsion Paint from a Copolymer Composite of Dimethylol Urea/Polystyrene. Chemistry and Materials Research, 7(7), 20–26.

Akinyemi, B. A., Olamide, O., & Oluwasogo, D. (2019). Formaldehyde free particleboards from wood chip wastes using glutaraldehyde modified cassava starch as binder. Case Studies in Construction Materials, 11, e00236. doi: 10.1016/j.cscm.2019.e00236

Al-Kadhemy, M. F. H., Rasheed, Z. S., & Salim, S. R. (2016). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for irradiation coumarin doped polystyrene polymer films by alpha ray. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 9(3), 321–331. doi: 10.1016/j.jrras.2016.02.004

Arendt, W. D., McBride, E. L., & Hanes, R. D. (2014). New dibenzoate plasticizer blends for PVC applications. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology, 20(3), 137–142. doi: 10.1002/vnl.21343

Arendt, W. D., McBride, E., & Conner, M. M. (2014). Use of Dibenzoate Plasticizers in Pressure Sensitive Adhesives. Retrieved from

Barrueso-Martínez, M. L., del Pilar Ferrándiz-Gómez, T., Romero-Sánchez, M. D., & Martín-Martínez, J. M. (2003). Characterization of eva-based adhesives containing different amounts of rosin ester or polyterpene tackifier. The Journal of Adhesion, 79(8-9), 805–824. doi: 10.1080/00218460309547

Chau, V. V., Bunge, F., Duffy, J., & Hood, L. (2011). Advances in Thermal Insulation of Extruded Polystyrene Foams. Cellular Polymers, 30(3), 137–155.

Cortes, S. (2010). Theory and Interpretation of Infrared spectroscopy spectra. Retrieved from

Duan, H., Qiu, T., Guo, L., Ye, J., Yuan, Y., & Li, X. (2016). The aminolysis of styrene–maleic anhydride copolymers for a new modifier used in urea-formaldehyde resins. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 66, 138–146. doi: 10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2016.01.003

El, S., Koraichi, S., Latrache, H., & Hamadi, F. (2012). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Environmental SEM: Suitable Tools for Study of Adhesion Stage and Biofilm Formation. Scanning Electron Microscopy. doi: 10.5772/34990

Elbadawi, M., Osman, Z., Paridah, T., Nasroun, T., & Kantiner, W. (2015). Mechanical and Physical Properties of Particleboards made from Ailanthus Wood and UF resin Fortified by Acacias Tannins Blend. Journal of Materials and Environmental Sciences, 6(4), 1016–1021.

Ernest, Z. (2015, January 23). How can I distinguish functional group region and fingerprint region in a infrared spectrum? Retrieved from

Ghani, A., Ashaari, Z., Bawon, P., & Lee, S. H. (2018). Reducing formaldehyde emission of urea formaldehyde-bonded particleboard by addition of amines as formaldehyde scavenger. Building and Environment, 142, 188–194. doi: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.06.020

Hamidu, L. A. J., Aroke, U. O., Osha, O. A., … Muhammad, I. M. (2019). Formulation and Characterization of Adhesive Produced From Polystyrene Waste Using Response Surface Optimization. Path of Science, 5(8), 2001–2009. doi: 10.22178/pos.49-2

Idris, U. D., Aigbodion, V. S., Gadzama, R. M., Abdullahi, J. (2011). Eco-Friendly (Watermelon Peels) Alternatives to Wood-based Particleboard Composites. Tribology in industry, 33(4), 173–181.

Labcompare. (n. d.). Infrared Spectroscopy (IR/FTIR). Retrieved October 10, 2019, from

Osemeahon, S. A., & Dimas, B. J. (2014). Development of urea formaldehyde and polystyrene waste as copolymer binder for emulsion paint formulation. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 6(3), 75–88. doi: 10.5897/jtehs2013.0285

Osemeahon, S. A., Barminas, J. T., & Jang, A. L. (2013). Development of Waste Polystyrene as a binder for emulsion paint formulation II: Effect of different types of Solvent. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 5(4), 1–7.

Osemeahon, S. A., Barminas, J. T., & Jang, A. L. (2013). Development of Waste Polystyrene as a binder for emulsion paint formulation II: Effect of different types of Solvent. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology, 5(4), 1–7.

Polymer Properties Database. (2015). Polystyrenes (gpps, hips, eps, sbr, sbs, abs). Retrieved October 10, 2019, from

Rouabah, F., Dadache, D., & Haddaoui, N. (2012). Thermophysical and Mechanical Properties of Polystyrene: Influence of Free Quenching. ISRN Polymer Science, 2012, 1–8. doi: 10.5402/2012/161364

Rudawska, A. (2012). Adhesive Properties. Scanning Electron Microscopy. doi: 10.5772/37011

Sanches, N. B., Pedro, R., Diniz, M. F., Mattos, E. D. C., Cassu, S. N., & Dutra, R. de C. L. (2013). Infrared Spectroscopy Applied to Materials Used as Thermal Insulation and Coatings. Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management, 5(4), 421–430. doi: 10.5028/jatm.v5i4.265

Santos, R. P., Oliveira Junior, M. S. de, Mattos, E. D. C., Diniz, M. F., & Dutra, R. D. C. L. (2013). Study by FT-IR Technique and Adhesive Properties of Vulcanized EPDM Modified with Plasma. Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management, 5(1). doi: 10.5028/jatm.v5i1.162

Selamat, M. E., Sulaiman, O., Hashim, R., Hiziroglu, S., Nadhari, W. N. A. W., Sulaiman, N. S., & Razali, M. Z. (2014). Measurement of some particleboard properties bonded with modified carboxymethyl starch of oil palm trunk. Measurement, 53, 251–259. doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2014.04.001

Silva, F. B. M., Vianna, R. F., & Neubert, E. I. (2014). Study of Adhesion Properties of Natural Rubber - Based Pressure Sensitive Adhesive with Variation of Tackifier Resin and Plasticizers Agents. Retrieved from

WebSpectra. (2019). Table of IR Absorptions. Retrieved October 10, 2019, from

Zhao, X., Peng, L., Wang, H., Wang, Y., & Zhang, H. (2018). Environment-friendly urea-oxidized starch adhesive with zero formaldehyde-emission. Carbohydrate Polymers, 181, 1112–1118. doi: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.11.035

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Lucas Albert Jerome Hamidu, Umar Omeiza Aroke, Odeh Adey Osha, Idris Misau Muhammad

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.