Prediction of Loss on Ignition of Ternary Cement Containing Coal Bottom Ash and Limestone Using Central Composite Design

Olumide Olu Olubajo, Isa Yusuf Makarfi, Osha Ade Odey


The effect of CBA/CBA-L ratio and the cement replacement on the Loss on ignition (LOI) of ternary cement blends was investigated using central composite design approach in the prediction of LOI of ternary cement blend comprising of Ordinary Portland cement, coal bottom ash and Limestone. LOI is an essential technique employed in the determination of the quality of the cement blend which can be achieved by heating a sample strongly at a specified temperature to enable release of volatile components until the weight remains constant. In this study, monitoring of the LOI of the various cement blends conducted dependent on cement replacement and coal bottom ash to coal bottom ash-limestone ratio (CBA/CBA-L ratio) via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis. The CBA/CBA-L ratio was varied from 0.25-0.75 while the cement replacement ranges from 20-40%. The significance of these factors within the specified ranges considered was evaluated using analysis of variance.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of CBA/CBA-L ratio and cement replacement in the prediction of LOI for ternary cement blends by employing Face Central Composite Design. Analysis of variance results indicated that the LOI prediction via XRF analysis was better than that of TG analyses in which both satisfied Two-Level Factorial model. It was observed from the predictive models that the LOI of the ternary cement decreased as the CBA/CBA-L ratio was increased while LOI of the ternary cement blend increased as the cement replacement was increased. An increase in both CBA/CBA-L ratio and cement replacement resulted in a decrease in the LOI of ternary cement. The cement replacement level of the ternary cement blends indicated a stronger influence on LOI compared to the CBA/CBA-L ratio which was indicated by a significantly high F value for cement replacement compared to CBA/CBA-L ratio.

The LOI results from XRF analysis were also found to significantly predict the LOI of the ternary cement blend compared to TGA with Regression value of 99.96% against 97.36% respectively. The CBA/CBA-L ratio and cement replacement were found to have a significant and interactive effect on the LOI of ternary cement blend for both XRF and TGA analyses.


prediction; loss on Ignition; cement replacement; coal bottom ash to coal bottom ash-limestone ratio; central composite design

Full Text:



Khalil, E. A. B., & Anwar, M. (2015). Carbonation of ternary cementitious concrete systems containing fly ash and silica fume. Water Science, 29(1), 36–44. doi: 10.1016/j.wsj.2014.12.001

Lothenbach, B., Scrivener, K., & Hooton, R. D. (2011). Supplementary cementitious materials. Cement and Concrete Research, 41(12), 1244–1256. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2010.12.001

Olubajo, O., Osha, O., El- Nafaty, U., & Adamu, H. (2014). Effect of water-cement ratio on the mechanical properties of blended cement containing bottom ash and limestone. Civil and Environmental Research, 6(12), 1–9.

De Weerdt, K., Kjellsen, K. O., Sellevold, E., & Justnes, H. (2011). Synergy between fly ash and limestone powder in ternary cements. Cement and Concrete Composites, 33(1), 30–38. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2010.09.006

Kaya, A. (2010). A study on blended bottom ash cements. Retrieved from

Olubajo, O., & Osha, O. (2013). Influence of bottom ash and limestone powder on the properties of ternary cement and mortar. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 2(7), 1201–1212.

Marthong, C. (2012). Effect of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) as Partial Replacement of Cement on Concrete Properties. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, 1(6), 1–9.

Kulkarni, M., Govind Mirgal, P., Bodhale, P., & Tande, S. (2014). Effect of Rice Husk Ash on Properties of Concrete. Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Technology, 1(1), 26–29.

Raheem, A., & Adesanya, A. (2011). A study of thermal conductivity of corn cob ash blended cement mortar. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 12(2), 106–111.

Maher, L. (1998). Automating the dreary measurements for loss on ignition. INQUA Sub-Commission on Data-Handling Methods, newsletter 18.

Bernal, L., Ke, X., Hussein, O. et al. (2016) Effect of testing condition on the loss on ignition results of anhydrous granulated blast furnace slags determined via thermogravimetry. In Segment on Concrete with Supplementary Cementitious Materials. International RILEM Conference on Materials, Systems and Structures in Civil Engineering (MSSCE), 21-24 Aug 2016, Lyngby.

Portland Cement Association. (2019). Cement & Concrete Basics FAQs. Retrieved from

Külaots, I., Hurt, R. H., & Suuberg, E. M. (2004). Size distribution of unburned carbon in coal fly ash and its implications. Fuel, 83(2), 223–230. doi: 10.1016/s0016-2361(03)00255-2

ASTM International. (2018). Standard Test Methods for Time of Setting of Hydraulic Cement by Vicat Needle (ASTM C191-18a). doi: 10.1520/c0191-18a

Madavath, K. (2018). Fineness test of cement by blaine’s air permeability method (is-4031-part-2). Retrieved from

Olubajo, O., Osha, O., El-Natafty, U., & Adamu, H. (2017). A study on Coal bottom ash and limestone effects on the hydration and physico-mechanical properties of ternary cement blends. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University.

Georgescu, M., & Saca, N. (2009). Properties of blended cements with limestone filler and fly ash content. Scientific Bulletin, Series B, 71(3), 11–22.

Gilliland, A. (2011). Evaluation of ternary blended cements for use in transportation concrete structures (Master’s thesis), The University of Utah. Retrieved from

Minh, L. T., & Tram, N. X. T. (2017). Utilization of Rice Husk Ash as partial replacement with Cement for production of Concrete Brick. MATEC Web of Conferences, 97, 01121. doi: 10.1051/matecconf/20179701121

Myers, R., & Montgomery, D. (1995). Response Surface Methodology: Process and Product Optimization Using Designed Experiments. New York: Wiley.

Arsenovic, M., Pezo, L., & Radojevic, Z. (2012). Response surface method as a tool for heavy clay firing process optimization: Roofing tiles. Processing and Application of Ceramics, 6(4), 209–214. doi: 10.2298/pac1204209a

Chauhan, B., & Gupta, R. (2004). Application of statistical experimental design for optimization of alkaline protease production from Bacillus sp. RGR-14. Process Biochemistry, 39(12), 2115–2122. doi: 10.1016/j.procbio.2003.11.002

Koocheki, A., Taherian, A. R., Razavi, S. M. A., & Bostan, A. (2009). Response surface methodology for optimization of extraction yield, viscosity, hue and emulsion stability of mucilage extracted from Lepidium perfoliatum seeds. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(8), 2369–2379. doi: 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2009.06.014

Lee, L., & Wang, W. (1997). Biological Statistics. Beijing: Science press.

Wani, Y. B., & Patil, D. D. (2017). An experimental design approach for optimization of spectrophotometric method for estimation of cefixime trihydrate using ninhydrin as derivatizing reagent in bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, 21, S101–S111. doi: 10.1016/j.jscs.2013.11.001

Matahula, W., & Olubajo, O. (2018). Effects of Limestone and Coal Bottom Ash on Setting Time of Blended Portland Cement (Ternary Cement). Journal of Material Science & Engineering, 07(05). doi: 10.4172/2169-0022.1000484

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Olumide Olu Olubajo, Isa Yusuf Makarfi, Osha Ade Odey

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.