Potential of Orange Peel Ash as a Cement Replacement Material
The potential of Orange peel ash (OPA) as a cement replacement material was investigated with focus on the effect of OPA content on the physicomechnical properties such as consistency, setting times, soundness, compressive and flexural strengths of OPA-cement blend for cement replacement between 2.5-10% at 2.5% interval. The optimal calcination temperature and time of orange peel (OP) was achieved by calcining the OP at various temperature between (600 °C, 700 °C, 800 °C) and time (1 hr. and 2 hrs.) respectively. The chemical compositions of the various orange peel ashes were determined using X-ray fluorescence equipment and the optimal conditions was obtained at 600 °C and 2 hours. The consistency and setting time tests were conducted with a Vicat apparatus on the binary cement pastes in accordance to ASTM standards. Results indicated an increase in the water required for consistency as the OPA content was increased from 2.5-10 % which was attributed to the unburnt carbon content present in the ash. Similarly, a gradual increase in the cement replacement with OPA resulted in a prolonged setting time which was could be attributed to the diminution of the clinker content and the higher water requirement for normal consistence. The soundness of the OPA cement blend experienced an increase in free lime content as the OPA content rose from 2.5-10 %. Both compressive and flexural strengths were found to decrease as the OPA content was gradually increased whereas an increase in the strengths were observed as the curing days progressed. It was also observed that 5% cement replacement with OPA did not adversely affect the strength in comparison to the OPC control due to the pozzolanic reaction which resulted in the enhanced strengths especially at 28 days.
Abdel-Shafy, H. I., & Mansour, M. S. M. (2018). Solid waste issue: Sources, composition, disposal, recycling, and valorization. Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, 27(4), 1275–1290. doi: 10.1016/j.ejpe.2018.07.003
Acheampong, A., Adom-Asaomoah, M., Ayarkwa, J., & Afrifa, R. (2013). Comparative study of the physical properties of Palm kernel shells concrete and normal weight concrete in Ghana. Journal of Science and Multidisciplinary Research, 5(1), 129–146.
ASTM International. (2016). Standard Test Method for Amount of Water Required for Normal Consistency of Hydraulic Cement Paste (ASTM C187-16). doi: 10.1520/c0187-16
ASTM International. (2016). Standard Test Method for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars (Using 2-in. or [50-mm] Cube Specimens) (ASTM C109/C109M-16a). doi: 10.1520/c0109_c0109m-16a
ASTM International. (2018). Standard Test Methods for Time of Setting of Hydraulic Cement by Vicat Needle (ASTM C191-18a). doi: 10.1520/c0191-18a
ASTM International. (2019). Standard Specification for Blended Hydraulic Cements (ASTM C595/C595M). doi: 10.1520/c0595_c0595m-19
ASTM International. (2019). Standard Specification for Coal Fly Ash and Raw or Calcined Natural Pozzolan for Use in Concrete (ASTM C618-19). doi: 10.1520/c0595_c0595m-19
Better Meets Realty. (2018, September 16). Waste Pollution: Causes, Sources, Effects & Solutions. Retrieved from https://www.bettermeetsreality.com/waste-pollution-causes-sources-effects-solutions
Bhushan, R., Gochhe, S., Singh, H., & Bastola, B. (2017). Partial Replacement of Cement by Rice husk ash. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology, 4(10), 251–256.
De Weerdt, K., Kjellsen, K. O., Sellevold, E., & Justnes, H. (2011). Synergy between fly ash and limestone powder in ternary cements. Cement and Concrete Composites, 33(1), 30–38. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2010.09.006
Djilas, S., Canadanovic-Brunet, J., & Cetkovic, G. (2009). By-products of fruits processing as a source of phytochemicals. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 15(4), 191–202. doi: 10.2298/ciceq0904191d
Elinwa, A. U., Ejeh, S. P., & Mamuda, A. M. (2008). Assessing of the fresh concrete properties of self-compacting concrete containing sawdust ash. Construction and Building Materials, 22(6), 1178–1182. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2007.02.004
Espiard, E. (2002). Introduction à la transformation industrielle des fruits. Paris: Tec &Doc Lavoisier
Freeman, E., Gao, Y.-M., Hurt, R., & Suuberg, E. (1997). Interactions of carbon-containing fly ash with commercial air-entraining admixtures for concrete. Fuel, 76(8), 761–765. doi: 10.1016/s0016-2361(96)00193-7
Georgescu, M., & Saca, N. (2009). Properties of blended cements with limestone filler and fly ash content. Scientific Bulletin, Series B, 71(3), 11–22.
Gowsika, D., Sarankokila, S., & Sargunan, K. (2014). Experimental investigation of egg shell powder as partial replacement with cement in concrete. International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology, 14(2), 65–68.
Kadi, N., & Vinod, M. (2015). Influence of Rise Husk Ash on the properties of concrete. Journal of Computer Science and Engineering, 1(5), 75–79.
Karthick, J., Jeyanthi R., & Petchiyammal, M. (2014). Experimental Study on Usage of Egg Shell as Partial Replacement for Sand in Concrete. International Journal of Advanced Research in Education Technology, 1(1), 7–10.
Kaya, A. (2010). A study on blended bottom ash cements. Retrieved from https://ru.scribd.com/document/230376452/A-Study-on-Blended-Bottom-Ash-Cements-Taban-Kulu-Katk%C4%B1l%C4%B1-Cimentolara-Yonelik-Bir-Cal%C4%B1%C5%9Fma
Külaots, I., Hurt, R. H., & Suuberg, E. M. (2004). Size distribution of unburned carbon in coal fly ash and its implications. Fuel, 83(2), 223–230. doi: 10.1016/s0016-2361(03)00255-2
Lothenbach, B., Le Saout, G., Gallucci, E., & Scrivener, K. (2008). Influence of limestone on the hydration of Portland cements. Cement and Concrete Research, 38(6), 848–860. doi: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2008.01.002
M’Hiri, N., Ioannou, I., Ghou, M., Mihoubi, B. (2015). Proximate chemical composition of orange peel and variation of phenols and antioxidant activity during convective air drying. Journal of New Sciences, Agriculture and Biotechnology, 9, 881–890.
Ma, Y., Chen, J., Liu, D., & Ye, X. (2009). Simultaneous extraction of phenol compounds of citrus peel extracts: Effect of ultrasound. Ultrason Sonochem, 16, 57–62.
Marín, F. R., Soler-Rivas, C., Benavente-García, O., Castillo, J., & Pérez-Alvarez, J. A. (2007). By-products from different citrus processes as a source of customized functional fibres. Food Chemistry, 100(2), 736–741. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.04.040
Marshall, R. E., & Farahbakhsh, K. (2013). Systems approaches to integrated solid waste management in developing countries. Waste Management, 33(4), 988–1003. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2012.12.023
Marthong, C. (2012). Effect of Rice Husk Ash (RHA) as Partial Replacement of Cement on Concrete Properties. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, 1(6), 1–9.
Mohamed, A., Dinesh, K., Milan, Ch., & Vani, G. (2016). Replacement of Cement using Eggshell powder. International Journal of Civil Engineering, 3(3), 1–2.
Namasivayam, C., Muniasamy, N., Gayatri, K., Rani, M., & Ranganathan, K. (1996). Removal of dyes from aqueous solutions by cellulosic waste orange peel. Bioresource Technology, 57(1), 37–43. doi: 10.1016/0960-8524(96)00044-2
Olubajo, O., & Osha, O. (2013). Influence of bottom ash and limestone powder on the properties of ternary cement and mortar. International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, 2(7), 1201–1212.
Olubajo, O., Osha, O., El-Natafty, U., & Adamu, H. (2017). A study on Coal bottom ash and limestone effects on the hydration and physico-mechanical properties of ternary cement blends. Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University.
Raheem, A., & Adesanya, A. (2011). A study of thermal conductivity of corn cob ash blended cement mortar. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 12(2), 106–111.
Santos, C. M., Dweck, J., Viotto, R. S., Rosa, A. H., & de Morais, L. C. (2015). Application of orange peel waste in the production of solid biofuels and biosorbents. Bioresource Technology, 196, 469–479. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.07.114
Sharma, A., Ameta, R., & Ameta, S. (2013). Orange peel as Alternate Fuel in Clinkerization. Scientific Reviews & Chemical Communication, 3(2), 110–119.
United Sates Department of Agriculture. (2019). Citrus: World Markets and Trade. Retrieved from http://www.fas.usda.gov/data/citrus-world-markets-and-tradeYerramala, A. (2014). Properties of concrete with eggshell powder as cement replacement. The Indian Concrete Journal, 88(10), 94–105.
Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2019 Olumide Olu Olubajo, Basiru Abdullahi, Osha Ade Odey
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.