Production of Ceiling Board from Piliostigma Thonningii using Styrofoam Adhesive as Binder

Ibrahim Shuaibu Muhammad, Usman Aliyu El-Nafaty, Surajudeen Abdusalam


The use of synthetic fibres resulted in environmental degradation and the growing interests towards the utilisation of readily available agricultural fibres as a potential replacement for synthetic fibres. This research aims to produce a ceiling board composite from piliostigma thonningii particulate using styrofoam adhesive binder. The board was produced from the readily available materials leading to the low cost of production. The composition has a formulation of fibre/binder mixing ratios (2:1, 1:1, 1:2 w:w), pressures of (100, 300, 500 kg/m2) and temperatures of (30, 65, 100 °C) respectively. The process was successfully modelled and optimized using a Box–Behnken design method. The optimal conditions for the piliostigma thonningii board were found to be fibre/binder mixing ratio of 1:1 w:w, pressure of 500 kg/m2 and temperature of 92 °C yielded response values of density (151.5 kg/m3), water absorption (9.04 %), tensile strength (16.9 N/m2), thermal conductivity (0.11 W/mK). Hence the board has greater insulating properties and good potential to be used as a ceiling board.


production; piliostigma thonningii; ceiling board

Full Text:



Abdullahi, I., & Umar A. A. (2010). Potentials of unsaturated polyester ground nut shell as material in building industry. Journal of Engineering and Technology, 5, 78–84.

ASTM International. (2012). Standard Test Methods for Evaluating Properties of Wood-Base Fiber and Particle Panel Materials (ASTM D1037-12). doi: 10.1520/d1037-12

ASTM International. (2016). Standard Test Method for Dimensions and Density of Preformed Block and Board–Type Thermal Insulation (ASTM C303-10(2016)e1). doi: 10.1520/C0303-10R16E01

ASTM International. (2018). Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Plastics (ASTM D570-98(2018)). doi: 10.1520/D0570-98R18

Bledzki, A. (1999). Composites reinforced with cellulose based fibres. Progress in Polymer Science, 24(2), 221–274. doi: 10.1016/s0079-6700(98)00018-5

Chidumayo, E. Growth of Bauhinia thonningii Trees and Saplings over a Decade in a Savanna in Zambia: Interactions of Climate, Fire and Source of Regeneration. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 24(4), 407–415.

Dagwa, I. M., Builders, P. F., & Achebo, J. (2012). Characterization of Palm Kernel Shell Powder for use in Polymer Matrix Composites. International Journal of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, 12(4), 88–93

Ekpunobi, U., Ohaekenyem, E., Ogbuagu, A., & Orjiako, E. (2015). The Mechanical Properties of Ceiling Board Produced from Waste Paper. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 5(2), 166–172. doi: 10.9734/bjast/2015/11627

JSTOR. (2019). Bauhinia thonningii. Retrieved March 1, 2019 , from

Jústiz-Smith, N. G., Virgo, G. J., & Buchanan, V. E. (2008). Potential of Jamaican banana, coconut coir and bagasse fibres as composite materials. Materials Characterization, 59(9), 1273–1278. doi: 10.1016/j.matchar.2007.10.011

Klyosov, A. A. (2007). Wood Plastic Composite. New Jersey: John Wiley & Son Inc.

Nemli, G., & Aydın, A. (2007). Evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of particleboard made from the needle litter of Pinus pinaster Ait. Industrial Crops and Products, 26(3), 252–258. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2007.03.016

Oehlert, G. (2010). A First Course in Design and Analysis of Experiments. Minnesota: University of Minnesota.

Panyakaew, S., & Fotios, S. (2011). New thermal insulation boards made from coconut husk and bagasse. Energy and Buildings, 43(7), 1732–1739. doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.03.015

Schwartz, M. M. (1992). Composite Materials Handbook (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Shaffer, J., Ashok, S., Antonovich, S. A., Sanders, Th. H., & Warner, S. (1999). The Science and Design of Engineering Materials (2nd ed.). New York: WCB/McGraw-Hill.

Tangjuank, S., & Kumfu, S. (2011). Particle Boards from Papyrus Fibers as Thermal Insulation. Journal of Applied Sciences, 11(14), 2640–2645. doi: 10.3923/jas.2011.2640.2645

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Ibrahim Shuaibu Muhammad, Usman Aliyu El-Nafaty, Surajudeen Abdusalam

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.