TiO2 Thin Films by Solution Technique for Solar Cells

Charles Mogunde, Cliff Orori Mosiori


Titanium dioxide has a number of applications in solar cells. In this study, TiO2 thin films were synthesized using a simple but less expensive, low temperature and large area deposition method referred to as chemical bath deposition. Their electrical and optical properties were examined at various temperatures where it was observed that the films exhibited low reflectance which increased with increase in wavelength with refractive indices of 2.2–2.5 in the visible spectra. Sheet resistivity ranged between 13.54±0.095 Ω/m to 17.27±0.209 Ω/m. They were use to fabricate photovoltaic cell which exhibited the following parameters: a short circuit current, Isc=0.002445 A, open voltage, Voc = 0.04731 V, a fill factor, FF=0.551 and an efficiency, η=0.531 %. They were recommended for diode applications.


FTO; titanium dioxide; refractive indices; solution technique; characterization

Full Text:



Anpo, M. (2000). Use of visible light. Second-generation titanium oxide photocatalysts prepared by the application of an advanced metal ion-implantation method. Pure and Applied Chemistry, 72(9), 1787–1792. doi: 10.1351/pac200072091787

Hass, G. (1952). Preparation, properties and optical applications of thin films of titanium dioxide. Vacuum, 2(4), 331–345. doi: 10.1016/0042-207x(52)93783-4

Huang, D., Xiao, Z.-D., Gu, J.-H., Huang, N.-P., & Yuan, C.-W. (1997). TiO2 thin films formation on industrial glass through self-assembly processing. Thin Solid Films, 305(1-2), 110–115. doi: 10.1016/s0040-6090(97)00202-2

Justicia, I., Ordejón, P., Canto, G., Mozos, J. L., Fraxedas, J., Battiston, G. A., ... & Figueras, A. (2002). Designed Self‐Doped Titanium Oxide Thin Films for Efficient Visible‐Light Photocatalysis. Advanced Materials, 14(19), 1399-1402. doi: 10.1002/1521-4095(20021002)14:19%3C1399::AID-ADMA1399%3E3.0.CO;2-C

Löbl, P., Huppertz, M., & Mergel, D. (1994). Nucleation and growth in TiO2 films prepared by sputtering and evaporation. Thin Solid Films, 251(1), 72–79. doi: 10.1016/0040-6090(94)90843-5

Lu, J.-P., Wang, J., & Raj, R. (1991). Solution precursor chemical vapor deposition of titanium oxide thin films. Thin Solid Films, 204(1), L13–L17. doi: 10.1016/0040-6090(91)90488-j

Luu, T. T., Garg, M., Kruchinin, S. Y., Moulet, A., Hassan, M. T., & Goulielmakis, E. (2015). Extreme ultraviolet high-harmonic spectroscopy of solids. Nature, 521(7553), 498–502. doi: 10.1038/nature14456

Martin, N., Rousselot, C., Rondot, D., Palmino, F., & Mercier, R. (1997). Microstructure modification of amorphous titanium oxide thin films during annealing treatment. Thin Solid Films, 300(1-2), 113–121. doi: 10.1016/s0040-6090(96)09510-7

Martin, N., Rousselot, C., Savall, C., & Palmino, F. (1996). Characterizations of titanium oxide films prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Films, 287(1-2), 154–163. doi: 10.1016/s0040-6090(96)08782-2

Negishi, N., Takeuchi, K., & Ibusuki, T. (1997). The surface structure of titanium dioxide thin film photocatalyst. Applied Surface Science, 121-122, 417–420. doi: 10.1016/s0169-4332(97)00349-8

Ohsuku, T., & Hirai, T. (1982). An electrochromic display based on titanium dioxide. Electrochimica Acta, 27(9), 1263–1266. doi: 10.1016/0013-4686(82)80146-1

Poelman, D., & Smet, P. F. (2003). Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: a critical review. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 36(15), 1850–1857. doi: 10.1088/0022-3727/36/15/316

Ritala, M., Rahtu, A., Leskela, M., & Kukli, K. (2003). Method for growing thin oxide films (US Patent No US6632279B1). Retrieved from https://patents.google.com/patent/US6632279

Vampa, G., Hammond, T. J., Thiré, N., Schmidt, B. E., Légaré, F., McDonald, C. R., … Corkum, P. B. (2015). Linking high harmonics from gases and solids. Nature, 522(7557), 462–464. doi: 10.1038/nature14517

Wu, M., Ghimire, S., Reis, D. A., Schafer, K. J., & Gaarde, M. B. (2015). High-harmonic generation from Bloch electrons in solids. Physical Review A, 91(4). doi: 10.1103/physreva.91.043839

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2018 Charles Mogunde, Cliff Orori Mosiori

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.