Sustaining Small Scale Farming: Evidence of Poverty and income Disparity among Rural Farming Households in South-South Region of Nigeria
The incidence of poverty is evidenced among rural farm households in developing societies. As a result of persistence poverty among rural farm households, there is sudden upsurge in agricultural livelihood diversification and rural-urban migration resulting in high rate of urban unemployment. To help generate suitable policThe incidence of poverty is evidenced among rural farm households in developing societies. As a result of persistence poverty among rural farm households, there is sudden upsurge in agricultural livelihood diversification and rural-urban migration resulting in high rate of urban unemployment. To help generate suitable policy variables to help tackle this rampaging issue in the South- south region of Nigeria, this study specifically analyzes poverty and income inequality as well as identified determinants of poverty among rural farm households in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 390 rural farm household heads spread across the rural areas of the State. Combination of sampling methods was employed to sample cross sectional data from respondents. The study used descriptive tools and regression analysis (Tobit regressions) to analyze information collected. The socio-economic analysis reveals that, most farming household heads were male; an average of 12.3 years of formal was discovered; social capital formation was poor, while average age stood at 42.5 years. About 33.08 % of male headed households and 22.05 % of female headed households live below poverty line in the study area. Income inequality index revealed 0.4210 for male headed households and 0.4531 for female counterpart. The Tobit model estimates revealed that, household head farming experience, years in social organization, level of formal education, farm and non-farm income were negative drivers of rural poverty in the region. Household’s age, household size, structure of land ownership and gender were positive drivers of poverty among rural farming households. It is recommended that sound family welfare packages should be implemented in the rural communities. Also, social capital formation should be promoted among rural farming households, while adult education policies should be re-visited. Government of the region should also improve educational facilities in the rural areas and make marginal lands available to less privileged farmers.
1. Adetayo, A. (2014). Analysis of farm households poverty status in Ogun states, Nigeria. Asian Economic and Financial Review, Vol. 4, 3, 325-340. Retrieved from http://www.aessweb.com/pdf-files/aefr%204(3),%20325-340.pdf
2. Aigbokhan, B. (2000). Poverty, Growth and Inequality in Nigeria: A Case Study. Retrieved from http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/IDEP/UNPAN003895.pdf
3. Akinbode, S. (2013). Profiles and Determinants of Poverty among Urban Households in South-West Nigeria. American Journal of Economics, 3(6), 322-329. Retrieved from http://article.sapub.org/10.5923.j.economics.20130306.11.html
4. Akpan, S. (2010). Encouraging Youth Involvement in Agricultural Production and Processing in Nigeria. Retrieved from https://goo.gl/bHzsFO
5. Akpan, S., & E. Udoh (2016). Farmers’ Decision to Participate in Government Agricultural Programmes in a Volatile Political Environment: A Case study of Famers in the South-South region of Nigeria. Russian Journal of Agriculture and Socio-Economic Sciences, 5(53), 135–148. doi: 10.18551/rjoas.2016-05.18
6. Akpan, S., Inimfon, V., Samuel, U., & Damian, I. (2015). Determinants of decision and participation of rural youth in agricultural production: a case study of youth in southern region of Nigeria. Russian Journal of Agriculture and Socio-Economic Sciences, 7(43), 35–48. doi: 10.18551/rjoas.2015-07.05
7. Apata, T., Apata, O., Igbalajobi, O., & Awoniyi, M. (2010). Determinants of rural poverty in Nigeria: evidence from smallholder farmers in south-western, Nigeria. Journal of Science and Technology Education Research, Vol. 1(4), 85–91. Retrieved from http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1379498480_Apata%20et%20al%202.pdf
8. Asogwa, B., Umeh, J., & Okwoche V. (2012). Estimating the Determinants of Poverty Depth among the Peri-Urban Farmers in Nigeria. Current Research Journal of Social Sciences, 4(3), 201–206. Retrieved from http://maxwellsci.com/print/crjss/v4-201-206.pdf
9. Aworemi, J. Abdula-Azeez, I. Opoola, N. (2011). An appraisal of the factors influencing rural-urban migration in some selected Local Government Areas of Lagos State. Journal of Sustainable Development, 3, 136–141. doi: 10.5539/jsd.v4n3p136
10. Awotide, B., Awoyemi, T., & Oluwatayo, I. (2012). Gender Analysis of Income Inequality and Poverty among Rural Households in Nigeria: Evidence from Akinyele Local Government Area, Oyo State. New York Science Journal, 5(10). 13–19. Retrieved from http://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/JBAH/article/download/20183/20658
11. Cochran, W. (1963). Sampling Techniques (2nd ed.). New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
12. Damisa, M., Sanni, S., Abdoulaye, T., Kamara, A., & Ayanwale, A. (2011). Household typology based analysis of livelihood strategies and poverty status in the Sudan Savannah of Nigeria: Baseline conditions. Learning Publics Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Studies, 2(1), 146–160. Retrieved from https://goo.gl/HCtv4Z
13. Duniya, K., & Rekwot, G. (2015). Determinants of Poverty among Groundnut Farming Households in Jigawa State, Nigeria. Asian Journal of Agricultural Extension, Economics & Sociology, 4(3), 224–230. doi: 10.9734/AJAEES/2015/13539
14. Edoumiekumo, S., Tamarauntari M., & Steve S. (2014). Income Poverty in Nigeria: Incidence, Gap, Severity and Correlates. American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol. 2, 1, 1–9. doi: 10.11634/232907811402499
15. Garba, A. (2006, July). Alleviating Poverty in Northern Nigeria. Annual Convention of Zumunta Association, Minneapolis, USA.
16. Gujarat, N., & Dawn, C. (2009). Basic Econometric (5th ed.). New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Irwin Singapore.
17. Igbalajobi, O., Fatuase, A., & Ajibefun, I. (2013). Determinants of Poverty Incidence among Rural Farmers in Ondo State, Nigeria. American Journal of Rural Development, 1(5), 131–137. doi: 10.12691/ajrd-1-5-5
18. National Bureau of Statistics (2006). Population Census. Retrieved from http://www.nigerianstat.gov.ng/report/103
19. National Bureau of Statistics (2016). Publications 2006 and 2010. Retrieved June 23, 2016, from http://www.nigerianstat.gov.ng
20. National Population Commission (2006). Publications. Retrieved June 23, 2016, from http://www.qtsnigeria.com
21. Ogbonna, M., Onyenweaku, C., & Nwaru, J. (2012). Determinants of rural poverty in Africa: the case of yam farm households in South-Eastern Nigeria. INT’L JOURNAL OF Agric. AND Rural Dev, 15(2), 1129–1137. Retrieved from https://goo.gl/9YUpkv
22. Ogwumike, F., & Akinnibosun, M. (2013). Determinants of Poverty among Farming Households in Nigeria. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(2) 365-373. doi: 10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n2p365
23. Okunmadewa, F., Olaniyan, S., Yusuf, A., Bankole, O., Oyeranti, B., ... Omonona, T. (2010). Poverty and Inequality among Rural Households in Nigeria. In O. Ogwumike (Ed.), Poverty and Inequality in Nigeria. Ibadan, Nigeria: Spectrum Books Ltd.
24. Olawuyi, S., & Adetunji, M. (2013). Assessment of Rural Households Poverty in Nigeria: Evidence from Ogbomoso Agricultural Zone of Oyo State, Nigeria. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Vol. 2, 1, 35-45. doi: 10.9734/JSRR/2013/2196
25. Omonona, B. (2001). The determinants of poverty among farming households in Kogi State, Nigeria (Unpublished PhD Thesis). University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.
26. Oni, L. (2014). An Assessment of Agriculture and Poverty Reduction Nexus in Nigeria. Journal of African Macroeconomic Review, Vol. 4, 1, 265–284. Retrieved from http://www.journalsbank.com/jamr_4_3.pdf
27. Poulton, C., Dorward, A., & Kydd, J. (2005). The Future of Small Farms: New Directions for Services, Institutions and Intermediation. World Development, Vol. 38, 10, 1413–1428. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2009.06.009
28. UNDP (2010). Human Development Report Nigeria 2008-2009. Achieving Growth with Equity. Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/nhdr_nigeria_2008-2009.pdf
29. World Bank (2007). World development report 2008: Agriculture for development. Washington, D. C., USA: The World Bank. doi: 10.1596/978-0-8213-7233-3
Metrics powered by PLOS ALM
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2016 S. Akpan, E. Udoh, I. Patrick
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.