Synthetic Modification of Sunflower Oil

Chinweikpe Kalu Uduma, Godfrey Ifeanyi Odo, Chukwu Emmanuel Okam, Kayode Fayisetan Adekunle, Gift Uzunma Ijioma, Nwosu-Obieogu Kenechi


This report is based on the synthesis of thermoset resins from sunflower oil. Sunflower oil with an iodine value of 120 g I / 100 g oil containing 30 % oleic acid and 59 % linoleic acid was epoxidized by reaction with a peroxy acid (formed in-situ by the reaction between hydrogen peroxide and formic acid). The ratio of ethylenic unsaturation to hydrogen peroxide to formic acid used was 1:1.5:0.5. The maximum conversion of iodine generated was 82.45 % for seven h of epoxidation at 65 °C, and the oxirane oxygen content at that same condition was 4.6 %. Thermoset resins synthesized from sunflower oil were further modified using acrylic acid. All the resins generated were characterized using FT-IR spectroscopy. The results showed that the generated resins could be used in composite production for automobile, construction, and furniture applications.


sunflower oil; epoxidation; thermoset resins; acrylation; Oxirane Oxygen Content

Full Text:



Bakare, F. O. (2015). Development of biocomposites from lactic acid thermoset resin and cellulose fibre reinforcements. Retrieved from

Adekunle, K., Ãkesson, D., & Skrifvars, M. (2010). Synthesis of reactive soybean oils for use as a biobased thermoset resins in structural natural fiber composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 115(6), 3137–3145. doi: 10.1002/app.31411

Adekunle, K. F. (2011). Bio-based Composites from Soybean Oil Thermosets and Natural Fibers. Retrieved from

Khot, S. N., Lascala, J. J., Can, E., Morye, S. S., Williams, G. I., Palmese, G. R., Kusefoglu, S. H., & Wool, R. P. (2001). Development and application of triglyceride-based polymers and composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 82(3), 703–723. doi: 10.1002/app.1897

O’Donnell, A., Dweib, M. A., & Wool, R. P. (2004). Natural fiber composites with plant oil-based resin. Composites Science and Technology, 64(9), 1135–1145. doi: 10.1016/j.compscitech.2003.09.024

Helminen, A. O., Korhonen, H., & Seppälä, J. V. (2002). Structure modification and crosslinking of methacrylated polylactide oligomers. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 86(14), 3616–3624. doi: 10.1002/app.11193

Cai, C., Dai, H., Chen, R., Su, C., Xu, X., Zhang, S., & Yang, L. (2008). Studies on the kinetics of in situ epoxidation of vegetable oils. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 110(4), 341–346. doi: 10.1002/ejlt.200700104

Adekunle, K., Ãkesson, D., & Skrifvars, M. (2010). Biobased composites prepared by compression molding with a novel thermoset resin from soybean oil and a natural-fiber reinforcement. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 116(3). doi: 10.1002/app.31634

Koronis, G., Silva, A., & Fontul, M. (2013). Green composites: A review of adequate materials for automotive applications. Composites Part B: Engineering, 44(1), 120–127. doi: 10.1016/j.compositesb.2012.07.004

Goud, V. V., Patwardhan, A. V., & Pradhan, N. C. (2006). Studies on the epoxidation of mahua oil (Madhumica indica) by hydrogen peroxide. Bioresource Technology, 97(12), 1365–1371. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2005.07.004

Article Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Metrics powered by PLOS ALM


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Chinweikpe Kalu Uduma, Godfrey Ifeanyi Odo, Chukwu Emmanuel Okam, Kayode Fayisetan Adekunle, Nwosu-Obieogu Kenechi, Gift Uzunma Ijioma

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.